The amendment made to s. 32(2) w.e.f AY 2002-03 is substantive. A substantive amendment is normally prospective in operation. S. 32(2) is a deeming provision which by legal fiction provides that the unabsorbed depreciation allowance u/s 32(1) is deemed to be depreciation allowance for the succeeding year(s). A deeming provision has to be strictly interpreted and cannot extend beyond the purpose for which it is intended. S. 32(1) deals with depreciation allowance for the current year and s. 32(2) uses the present tense to refer to allowance to which effect `cannot be’ and `has not been’ given. This indicates that s. 32(2) speaks of depreciation allowance u/s 32(1) for the current year starting from AY 2002-03. Brought forward unabsorbed depreciation of earlier years cannot be included within the scope of s. 32(2). If the intention of the legislature had been to allow such b/fd unabsorbed depreciation of earlier years at par with current depreciation for the year u/s 32(1), s. 32(2) would have used past or past prefect tense and not the present tense. Further, the unabsorbed depreciation for the period from AY 1997-1998 to 1999-2000 has been referred to as “unabsorbed depreciation allowance” and given a special name and cannot fall within s. 32(1) in AY 2002-03
The argument that because the information held by ITAT is in the form of only judicial record, such record is outside the purview of the RTI Act is not acceptable. Even the Supreme Court and High Courts have rules for disclosure of judicial information. The only requirement is that applicant must adhere to the particular rules in making an application under the RTI Act.
The recorded reason that the violation of s. 11(5) r.w.s. 13(1)(d) by the assessee led the amount of Rs. 1.02 crores to be included in the assessee’s total income is clearly contrary to the legal position that while the assessee may lose exemption u/s 10(23C) for not adhering to the conditions of s. 11(5), this does not result in the said amount being chargeable to tax in the hands of the assessee. The fact that the amount was not invested in the prescribed manner does not mean that it can be assessed as income
The assessee was not rendering simple technical or consultancy services but was rendering specific activities through the PE. Accordingly, Article 12 of the DTAA was not applicable. Income attributable to a PE is assessable under Article 7 of the DTAA. Under Article 7(2), the PE is deemed to be a wholly independent enterprise and under Article 7(3) deduction in accordance with the subject to the law relating to the tax in India is allowable. Since Article 7 of the DTAA comes into play, s. 9(1)(vii) is not applicable. Since Article 7 (2) of the DTAA specifies that the PE in India is to be treated as a wholly independent enterprise in India, ss. 44D and 115A will not apply in so far as they relate to foreign companies.
As per the law laid down in Sudhir Mehta 265 ITR 548 (Bom), where an order is passed as per the prevailing law, a retrospective amendment which comes into force after the date of the passing of the order does not show any mistake in the order.
On merits, under the Act, when a non-resident has operations in India through a presence in India, such presence is to be treated as a “permanent establishment” (“PE”) in India. The PE is to be treated as hypothetically independent of the non-resident . The assets of the PE are also to be recognized as such and the profit or gains on sale of assets of the PE have to be treated as profits of the PE. The gains or losses on sale of PE assets have to be treated as “accruing or arising in India” irrespective of whether the assets were sold in India or outside India. The income can also be deemed to have accrued or arisen in India u/s 9(1)(i) as the rig was part of a “business connection” and “an asset or source of income” in India (principles laid down in Hyundai Heavy Industries 291 ITR 482 followed)
The fact that a surplus incidentally arises from the activities of the assessee does not disentitle an assessee of the benefit of s. 10(23C). The third proviso to s. 10(23C) which permits accumulation of surplus up to limits shows that the generation of surplus is per se not a disabling factor. The effect of Aditanar Educational Institution 224 ITR 310 (SC) is that the decisive or acid test is whether the object is to make a profit. In evaluating or appraising the issue, one should bear in mind the distinction between the corpus, the objects and the powers of the concerned entity
The external comparables selected by the assessee were from a public data base and the assessee has followed a detailed search process and made an analysis considering the various factors of selecting the external comparables as required under Transfer Pricing Regulations and Guidelines. Therefore, the transfer pricing study of the assessee and ALP determined on the basis of such study simply cannot be rejected without any cogent reasons. Unless proper method is followed, comparables are chosen and selected after doing a proper FAR study as well as adjustments are made to the extent possible it is unfair to summarily reject the transfer pricing analysis made by the assessee
The department has the option u/s 166 to assess either the non-resident principal or the representative assessee. Once the choice is made and the income is brought to tax in the hands of the principal, the same income cannot be again assessed u/s 163 in the hands of a representative assessee (Saipem UK 298 ITR (AT) 113 (Mum) followed). Consequently, the assessment order on the agent had to be annulled
The warrant of authorization u/s 132 was issued in the name of “K. M. Shah Charitable Trust, Mansukhbhai K. Shah“. This cannot be regarded as a warrant of authorization issued in the name of assessee in his individual capacity. The search cannot be regarded as conducted against the assessee in his individual capacity. The assessee’s name appears in the warrant and panchnama as the Managing Trustee of the Trust and not in his individual capacity. When a warrant is issued in joint names, an assessment in individual capacity/status is invalid (Vandana Verma (All) followed). Consequently, the s. 153A proceedings were invalid