Search Results For: Development agreement


CIT vs. Balbir Singh Maini (Supreme Court)

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DATE: October 4, 2017 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: October 6, 2017 (Date of publication)
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CITATION:
S. 2(47)/ 45: Entire law on whether a joint development agreement entered into by an owner of land with a developer constitutes a "transfer" u/s 2(47) and whether the same gives rise to capital gains chargeable to tax u/s 45 and 48 of the Income-tax Act explained in the context of the provisions of the Transfer of Property Act, Registration Act and real income theory

If an agreement, like the JDA in the present case, is not registered, then it shall have no effect in law for the purposes of Section 53A. In short, there is no agreement in the eyes of law which can be enforced under Section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act. This being the case, we are of the view that the High Court was right in stating that in order to qualify as a “transfer” of a capital asset under Section 2(47)(v) of the Act, there must be a “contract” which can be enforced in law under Section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act. A reading of Section 17(1A) and Section 49 of the Registration Act shows that in the eyes of law, there is no contract which can be taken cognizance of, for the purpose specified in Section 53A. The ITAT was not correct in referring to the expression “of the nature referred to in Section 53A” in Section 2(47)(v) in order to arrive at the opposite conclusion. This expression was used by the legislature ever since sub-section (v) was inserted by the Finance Act of 1987 w.e.f. 01.04.1988. All that is meant by this expression is to refer to the ingredients of applicability of Section 53A to the contracts mentioned therein. It is only where the contract contains all the six features mentioned in Shrimant Shamrao Suryavanshi (supra), that the Section applies, and this is what is meant by the expression “of the nature referred to in Section 53A”. This expression cannot be stretched to refer to an amendment that was made years later in 2001, so as to then say that though registration of a contract is required by the Amendment Act of 2001, yet the aforesaid expression “of the nature referred to in Section 53A” would somehow refer only to the nature of contract mentioned in Section 53A, which would then in turn not require registration. As has been stated above, there is no contract in the eye of law in force under Section 53A after 2001 unless the said contract is registered. This being the case, and it being clear that the said JDA was never registered, since the JDA has no efficacy in the eye of law, obviously no “transfer” can be said to have taken place under the aforesaid document

Posted in All Judgements, Supreme Court

ACIT vs. Jawaharlal Agicha (ITAT Mumbai)

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DATE: September 28, 2016 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: October 15, 2016 (Date of publication)
AY: 2008-09
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CITATION:
S. 2(47)(v): Entire law on whether entering into a "joint development agreement" with the builder and handing over possession/ power of attorney amounts to a "transfer" and gives rise to capital gains explained. Chaturbuj Dwarkadas Kapadia 260 ITR 491(Bom) explained/ distinguished

It is generally seen that there may be several stages or events arising in a joint development arrangement made between owner of the land and the developer. For the purpose of determining the actual date of transfer of the land by the land owner, all these stages / events needs to be collectively analsysed and after evaluating overall effect of the same we can determine the actual date of transfer. These stages / events may be described as date of entering into JDA, date of executing power of attorney authorising the developer for taking various approvals / permissions etc., handing over the possession of the land to the developer for various purposes, receipt of part / full sale consideration from the developer, date of execution of power of attorney in favour of developer authorising him for the sale of developed units to the customers at his absolute discretion; and transfer of developed units to the customers etc. There may be few more stages / events to complete the transaction. Though, one single event may trigger the process of transfer but may not necessarily complete it also. Whether the transfer has, in substance, taken place, can be determined by analysing the inter-play and effect of all these stages / events combined and put together. For example, possession may be given for various purposes, viz. possession given to a contractor, or to a tenant also, but such an event in itself cannot be regarded as “transfer” of land. Possession of land may also be handed over as licensee only for the purpose of development of real estate on land. Here again, it shall not give rise to “transfer”. Thus, when the possession is given along with other legal rights to the developer resulting into entitlement of the developer for full use and enjoyment of the property as well as its further sale after converting it into developed units at its full, own and sole discretion, then it may result into ‘transfer’ provided other conditions also suggest so. Thus, handing over of the possession has to be necessarily coupled with the intention of transferring the rights of ownership and enjoyment of the property to the developer. Handing over of the possession for the limited purpose of developing the land while still retaining the ownership and control of various legal rights upon the property by the land owner would not fall in clause (v) of section 2(47)

Posted in All Judgements, Tribunal

ACIT vs. M/s Dattani Development (ITAT Mumbai)

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DATE: July 27, 2016 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: August 10, 2016 (Date of publication)
AY: 2007-08
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CITATION:
S. 50C: Land purchased by a builder with the knowledge that there are encumbrances on it and development is not feasible is a “capital asset” and not “stock-in-trade”. The gains on transfer of such land is assessable as capital gains and not as business profits. S. 50C applies to development agreements if the effect of the development agreement read with the conveyance deed is that the entire land with ownership rights are transferred

Section 50C of the Act is clearly applicable even to the sale of development rights in the land as was held in the decisions relied upon by the learned DR as detailed above , more-so we have already held that in-fact the assessee has not only sold development rights in the land but the assessee sold the entire land with ownership rights in the land if the development agreement are read in conjunction with deed of confirmation / conveyance executed by the assessee which are placed in paper book filed with the Tribunal. Thus, the land which was sold during the previous year by the assessee, thus keeping in view our above discussions in the light of facts and circumstances of the case, was a capital asset within the provisions of Section 2(14) of the Act and the valuation of the land as per stamp duty valuation authorities as per section 50C of the Act was rightly adopted by the AO as full value of consideration

Posted in All Judgements, Tribunal

C. S. Atwal vs. CIT (Punjab & Haryana High Court)

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DATE: July 22, 2015 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: July 28, 2015 (Date of publication)
AY: 2007-08
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CITATION:
S. 2(47)(v)/(vi): Entire law on whether the entering into a joint development agreement with an irrevocable power of attorney in favour of the developer results in a "transfer" for purposes of capital gains explained

The concept of possession to be defined is an enormous task to be precisely elaborated. “Possession” is a word of open texture. It is an abstract notion. It implies a right to enjoy which is attached to the right to property. It is not purely a legal concept but is a matter of fact. The issue of ownership depends on rule of law whereas possession is a question dependent upon fact without reference to law. To put it differently, ownership is strictly a legal concept and possession is both a legal and a non-legal or pre-legal concept. The test for determining whether any person is in possession of anything is to see whether it is under his general control. He should be actually holding, using and enjoying it, without interference on the part of others. It would have to be ascertained in each case independently whether a transferee has been delivered possession in furtherance of the contract in order to fall under Section 53A of the 1882 Act and thus amenable to tax by virtue of Section 2(47)(v) read with Section 45 of the Act

Posted in All Judgements, High Court

Dheeraj Amin vs. ACIT (ITAT Bangalore)

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DATE: June 30, 2015 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: July 10, 2015 (Date of publication)
AY: 2010-11
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CITATION:
Development Agreement: Tax implications of entering into a development agreement in respect of land held as stock-in-trade explained

What the assessee has got today is only a right to sell the 1,28,940.26 fts of constructed area in the Alexandria project and the profits, howsoever certain they may appear to be, will only fructify and be realized, and can even be quantified, only when this right is exercised- in part or in full. That stage has not yet come, and until that stage comes, such profit cannot be taxed

Posted in All Judgements, Tribunal

ACIT vs. Upper India Paper Mills Co Pvt. Ltd (ITAT Lucknow)

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DATE: June 23, 2015 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: July 8, 2015 (Date of publication)
AY: 2009-10
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CITATION:
S. 2(47)(v): Even if possession is handed over to the developer, there is no "transfer" if the developer has only paid an interest-free advance to the assessee to meet expenses

The provisions of section 2(47)(v) of the Act can only be invoked where absolute possession of capital asset was given to the buyer against certain consideration, but in the instant case no consideration was ever fixed for handing over the possession to the developer and whatever amount was received it was received as interest free advance to meet the expenses to be incurred in discharging certain responsibilities agreed upon in this agreement. Therefore, from any angle there is no transfer of asset as per provisions of section 2(47) of the Act and capital gain would only be chargeable in the years in which stock-in-trade would be sold

Posted in All Judgements, Tribunal

Fardeen Khan vs. ACIT (ITAT Mumbai)

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DATE: February 25, 2015 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: March 9, 2015 (Date of publication)
AY: 2008-09
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CITATION:
S. 2(47)(v)/(vi): Land ceases to be a capital asset on date of application for conversion into N. A. land. Pursuant to amendment to s. 53A of TOP Act , non-registered development agreement does not result in transfer u/s 2(47)(v). Law in Chaturbhuj Dwarkadas Kapadia 260 ITR 491 (Bom) does not apply after amendment to s. 53A

As provisions of section 53A was amended in 2001 by which additional condition of registration of the written agreement was introduced and since in the instant case the agreement was not registered, the decision rendered by Hon’ble Bombay High Court in the case of Chaturbhuj Dwarkadas Kapadia 260 ITR 491 with respect to relevant provisions of section 53A applicable in A.Y. 1996-97 will not be applicable to the facts of instant case

Posted in All Judgements, Tribunal

CIT vs. Chemosyn Ltd (Bombay High Court)

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DATE: February 11, 2015 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: February 24, 2015 (Date of publication)
AY: 2007-08
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CITATION:
(i) Even if gains have accrued on execution of the development agreement as per Chaturbhuj Dwarkadas, the subsequent modification/ supercession of the agreement means that gains are not taxable as per real income theory, (ii) expenditure on buy-back of shares of warring shareholders is business expenditure

In Chaturbhuj Dwarkadas Kapadia, the issue was to determine the year in which the property was transferred for the purpose of capital gains. In this case the issue is what is the consideration received for the transfer of an asset. No income is accrued or received of the value of 18000 sq.feet of constructed area under the development agreement because the said agreement was not acted upon as it came to be uperseded/modified by the Tripartite agreement. This was the position when the return of income was filed. On the application of the real income theory, there would be neither accrual nor receipt of income to warrant bringing to tax to the constructed area of 18,000 sq.ft which has not been received by the assessee (CIT vs. Shoorji Vallabhdas 46 ITR 144 (SC) followed)

Posted in All Judgements, High Court

ACIT vs. B. Rajamallu (ITAT Hyderabad)

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DATE: November 26, 2014 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: December 1, 2014 (Date of publication)
AY: 2008-09
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CITATION:
S. 2(47)/ 53A: Mere handing over possession pursuant to development agreement does not result in transfer if developer has not taken steps for development of property

The AO has assessed capital gain in the assessment year for the reason that assessee as per the terms of the development agreement entered with the developer has handed over possession of the property. However, as can be seen from

Posted in All Judgements, Tribunal

Dilip Anand Vazirani vs. ITO (ITAT Mumbai)

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DATE: November 14, 2014 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: November 17, 2014 (Date of publication)
AY: 2001-02
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CITATION:
S. 2(47((v)/(vi): Mere execution of a development agreement does not result in a "transfer" if the approval of the municality is delayed and the developer has not started work

The assessee had received advance amounts much earlier to the execution of development agreement, probably on the strength of the MOU. The property was encumbered with tenancy rights of many persons and the release of tenancy right was completed only

Posted in All Judgements, Tribunal
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