Search Results For: 37(1)


PCIT vs. Chawla Interbild Construction Co. Pvt. Ltd (Bombay High Court)

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DATE: February 28, 2018 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: May 24, 2018 (Date of publication)
AY: 2009-10
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The fact that the parties to whom payments were made did not appear before the AO does not justify a disallowance if the assessee has discharged the initial onus and produced documentary proof. The assessee cannot compel the appearance of the parties before the AO. The onus is on the AO to carry out enquiries based on the PAN Nos to find out the genuineness of the parties

The respondent – assessee had done everything to produce necessary evidence, which would indicate that the payments have been made to the parties concerned. The details furnished by the respondent assessee were sufficient for the Assessing Officer to take further steps if he still doubted the genuineness of the payments to examine whether or not the payment was genuine. The Assessing Officer on receipt of further information did not carry out the necessary enquiries on the basis of the PAN numbers, which were available with him to find out the genuineness of the parties. The CIT(A) as well as the Tribunal have correctly held that it is not possible for the assessee to compel the appearance of the parties before the Assessing Officer

Standard Batteries Ltd vs. CIT (Bombay High Court)

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DATE: April 27, 2018 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: April 30, 2018 (Date of publication)
AY: 1986-87
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S. 35AB: Question whether the term "acquiring know-how" means acquiring on ownership basis or on lease and whether deduction can be allowed u/s 37(1) for revenue expenditure explained. Judgements in Anil Starch Products 232 TM 129 and Diffusion Engineers 376 ITR 487 (Kar) (based on Swaraj Engines 301 ITR 284 (SC)) dissented from

Therefore, the reliance by the Gujarat High Court in Anil Starch Products Ltd. (supra) and Sayaji Industries Ltd.(supra) and Karnataka High Court in Diffusion Engineers Ltd. (supra) on the basis of the Apex Court decision in Swaraj Industries Ltd. (supra) to hold that all expenditure which is revenue in nature would not fall under section 35AB of the Act and would have necessarily to fall under Section 37 of the Act to our mind is not warranted by the decision of the Apex Court in Swaraj Engines Ltd. (SC)

CIT vs. Travancore Cochin Udyoga Mandal (Supreme Court)

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DATE: August 17, 2017 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: September 9, 2017 (Date of publication)
AY: 1992-93
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S. 37(1): in order to decide whether disputed lease rent is deductible in the year of fixation or in the year the dispute attains finality, the nature of fixation of rent, its payment, recovery etc. and whether it is statutory or contractual, have bearing. The Tribunal is required to bring the facts on record

The question as to whether the fixation of rent and its payment is statutory or contractual and, if so, its effect while claiming deduction under the Income Tax Act and, if so, in which year of assessment is a mixed question of law and fact. In our considered opinion, in order to decide the issue of deduction, the nature of fixation of rent, its payment, recovery etc. and whether it is statutory or contractual, has some bearing over the question

Honda Siel Cars India Ltd vs. CIT (Supreme Court)

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DATE: June 9, 2017 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: June 10, 2017 (Date of publication)
AY: 1999-00
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Technical know-how: Entire law explained on whether expenditure incurred under a Technical Collaboration Agreement for setting up of new plant for the first time to manufacture cars constitutes capital or revenue expenditure

When we apply the aforesaid parameters to the facts of the present case, the conclusion drawn by the High Court that expenditure incurred was of capital nature, appears to be unblemished. Admittedly, there was no existing business and, thus, question of improvising the existing technical know-how by borrowing the technical know-how of the HMCL, Japan did not arise. The assessee was not in existence at all and it was the result of joint venture of HMCL, Japan and M/s. HSCIL, India. The very purpose of Agreement between the two companies was to set up a joint venture company with aim and objective to establish a unit for manufacture of automobiles and part thereof. As a result of this agreement, assessee company was incorporated which entered into TCA in question for technical collaboration. This technical collaboration included not only transfer of technical information, but, complete assistance, actual, factual and on the spot, for establishment of plant, machinery etc. so as to bring in existence manufacturing unit for the products. Thus, a new business was set up with the technical know-how provided by HMCL, Japan and lumpsum royalty, though in five instalments, was paid therefor

CIT vs. Raghuvir Synthetics Ltd (Supreme Court)

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DATE: March 28, 2017 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: April 28, 2017 (Date of publication)
AY: 1994-95
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S. 143(1)(a): Even though there was a raging controversy amongst the High Courts on whether expenditure for raising capital is capital or revenue in nature, the judgement of the jurisdictional High Court is binding on the assessee and any view contrary thereto is a "prima facie" mistake that requires adjustment

Even though it is a debatable issue but as Gujarat High Court in the case of Ahmedabad Mfg. & Calico (P) Ltd. (supra) had taken a view that it is capital expenditure which was subsequently followed by Alembic Glass Industries Ltd. V. CIT (supra) and the registered office of the respondent assessee being in the State of Gujarat, the law laid down by the Gujarat High Court was binding. (See Taylor Instrument Com.(India) Ltd. v. Commissioner of Income Tax (1998) 232 ITR 771, Commissioner of Gift Tax v. J.K. Jain (1998) 230 ITR 839, Commissioner of Income Tax v. Sunil Kumar (1995) 212 ITR 238, Commissioner of Income Tax v. Thana Electricity Supply Ltd. – (1994) 206 ITR 727, Indian Tube Company Ltd. v. Commissioner of Income Tax & Ors. (1993) 203 ITR 54, Commissioner of Income Tax v. P.C. Joshi & B.C. Joshi (1993) 202 ITR 1017 and Commissioner of Income Tax, West Bengal, Calcutta v. Raja Benoy Kumar Sahas Roy (1957) 32 ITR 466). Therefore, so far as the present case is concerned, it cannot be said that the issue was a debatable one

CIT vs. Axis Pvt. Equity Ltd (Bombay High Court)

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DATE: January 30, 2017 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: February 3, 2017 (Date of publication)
AY: 2007-08
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S. 28/29: There is a distiction between "setting up of business" and "commencement of business". All expenditure after "setting up" is deductible business expenditure even if the business has not commenced. A business is "set up" when steps are taken to recruit employees and take premises etc

A similar issue viz. distinction between setting up of business and commencement of business had come up for consideration before this Court in Western India Vegetable Products Ltd. vs. Commissioner of Income Tax 1954 Vol. 26 ITR Page 151. This Court had held that business is said to have been set up when it is established and ready to be commence. However, there may be an interval between a business which is set up and a business which is commenced. However, all expenses incurred during the interregnum between setting up of business and commencement of business would be permissible deductions

Religare Commodities Ltd vs. ACIT (ITAT Delhi)

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DATE: January 4, 2017 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: January 18, 2017 (Date of publication)
AY: 2008-09
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S. 37(1): Stock Options (appreciation rights) are intended to motive employees and so the expenditure thereon is a deductible revenue expenditure. The discount (difference between market price and vesting price) is allowable upon vesting subject to reversal if the options lapse

The discount under ESOP is in the nature of employees cost and is hence deductible during the vesting period w.r.t. the market price of shares at the time of grant of options to the employees. The amount of discount claimed as deduction during the vesting period is required to be reversed in relation to the unvesting/lapsing options at the appropriate time. However, an adjustment to the income is called for at the time of exercise of option by the amount of difference in the amount of discount calculated with reference the market price at the time of grant of option and the market price at the time of exercise of option. No accounting principle can be determinative in the matter of computation of total income under the Act

Apollo Tyres Ltd vs. ACIT (ITAT Cochin)

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DATE: January 10, 2017 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: January 11, 2017 (Date of publication)
AY: 2010-11
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S. 37(1): The loss on sale of shares of a wholly-owned subsidiary is allowable as a business loss if the investment in the subsidiary was made for commercial purposes

The objective of ATAG was undertaking sales and marketing related activities for the brand of the appellant in Singapore. The said factual assertion has not been rebutted by the AO in the impugned assessment order. There is nothing on record to show that the said subsidiary company was doing any activity completely independent and unrelated to the activities carried out by the appellant company. Thus, the claim of the appellant that the investment was made for commercial purposes and not for purpose of accretion of investment cannot be rejected

Reliance Infrastructure Ltd vs. CIT (Bombay High Court)

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DATE: December 20, 2016 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: December 21, 2016 (Date of publication)
AY: 1983-84
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S. 40(a)(ii): Foreign taxes are not hit by the bar in s. 40(a)(ii) and are deductible on the real income theory. After the insertion of the Explanation to s. 40(a)(ii) by the FA 2006, foreign taxes are not deductible only to the extent they are eligible for relief u/s 90 & 91. Amounts not eligible for DIT relief are deductible. The Explanation is declaratory and has retrospective effect

It is not disputed before us that some part of the income on which the tax has been paid abroad is on the income accrued or arisen in India. Therefore, to the extent, the tax is paid abroad on income which has accrued and/or arisen in India, the benefit of Section 91 of the Act is not available. In such a case, an Assessee such as the applicant assessee is entitled to a deduction under Section 40(a)(ii) of the Act. This is so as it is a tax which has been paid abroad for the purpose of arriving global income on which the tax payable in India. Therefore, to the extent the payment of tax in Saudi Arabia on income which has arisen / accrued in India has to be considered in the nature of expenditure incurred or arisen to earn income and not hit by the provisions of Section 40(a)(ii) of the Act. (q) The Explanation to Section 40(a)(ii) of the Act was inserted into the Act by Finance Act, 2006. However, the use of the words “for removal of dobuts” it is hereby declared “…….” in the Explanation inserted in Section 40(a)(ii) of the Act, makes it clear that it is declaratory in nature and would have retrospective effect. This is not even disputed by the Revenue before us as the issue of the nature of such declaratory statutes stands considered by the decision of the Supreme Court in CIT Vs. Vatika Township (P) Ltd. 367 ITR 466 and CIT Vs. Gold Coin Health Foods (P) Ltd. 304 ITR 308

CIT vs. M/s. D. Chetan & Co (Bombay High Court)

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DATE: October 1, 2016 (Date of pronouncement)
DATE: October 10, 2016 (Date of publication)
AY: 2009-10
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37(1)/43(5): Loss suffered in foreign exchange transactions entered into for hedging business transactions cannot be disallowed as being “notional” or “speculative” in nature. S. Vinodkumar Diamonds is not good law as it lost sight of Badridas Gauridas 261 ITR 256 (Bom)

It appears that in S. Vinodkumar, the Tribunal held the forward contract on facts before it to be speculative in nature in view of Section 43(5) of the Act. However, it appears that the decision of this court in CIT vs. Badridas Gauridas (P) Ltd. (134) Taxman Pg. 376 was not brought to the notice of the Tribunal when it rendered its decision in S. Vinodkumar (supra). In the above case, this court has held that forward contract in foreign exchange when incidental to carrying on business of cotton exporter and done to cover up losses on account of differences in foreign exchange valuations, would not be speculative activity but a business activity

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